The teaching and training shall give the pupils understanding of critical and scientific thinking. Critical and scientific thinking means applying reason in an inquisitive and systematic way when working with specific practical challenges, phenomena, expressions and forms of knowledge. The teaching and training must create understanding that the methodologies for examining the real world must be adapted to what we want to study, and that the choice of methodology influences what we see.
If new insight is to emerge, established ideas must be scrutinised and criticised by using theories, methods, arguments, experiences and evidence. The pupils must be able to assess different sources of knowledge and think critically about how knowledge is developed. They must also be able to understand that their own experiences, points of view and convictions may be incomplete or erroneous. Critical reflection requires knowledge, but there is also room for uncertainty and unpredictability. The teaching and training must therefore seek a balance between respect for established knowledge and the explorative and creative thinking required to develop new knowledge.
Ethical awareness, which means balancing different considerations, is necessary if one is to be a reflecting and responsible human being. The teaching and training must develop the pupils' ability to make ethical assessments and help them to be cognisant of ethical issues.
Critical thinking and ethical awareness are a requirement for and part of what it means to learn in different contexts and will therefore help the pupils to develop good judgment. Practical work in a vocation, profession or artistic field also requires the ability to reflect, judge and evaluate.