Geography - common core subject in programmes for general studies (GEO1-01)

Established as a Regulation by the Ministry of Education and Research on 8 March 2006.

Gjelder fra: 01.08.2006

Gjelder til: 31.07.2021

Purpose

The main objective of the geography subject is to develop awareness of the relation between nature and the man-made environment. The teaching in this subject shall stimulate the ability to see relations between production and consumption and discuss the consequences of area and resource use for the environment and sustainable development.

Geography shall provide the basis for understanding population development and the distribution of resources, explaining similarities and differences and discussing change processes. The subject shall also give insight into how natural resources, weather and climate have provided the basis for the settlement and development of communities. Geography shall also create understanding of why resources are important for global production, division of labour and settlement. Population development and global economic processes influence economic development and the global distribution of goods. The geography subject shall provide an overview and explain the localisation of cities and the scope of natural and man-made conditions on earth.

The geography subject shall contribute to understanding and mastering the great amount of information in our time. More knowledge motivates and stimulates the ability to analyse critically and understand comprehensively. This can give the pupils a good basis for participating in the development of society in a constructive way. An important objective of the geography subject is also to develop the pupils' ability to be tolerant and understand their global co-responsibilities.

Main subject areas

The subject has been structured into main subject areas for which competence aims have been formulated. These main subject areas supplement each other and must be considered together.

In upper secondary education the geography subject is taught in Vg1 or Vg2 in programmes for general studies, cf. the distribution of subjects and teaching hours in upper secondary education.

Geography has competence aims after Vg1 in the programme area for science and languages, social sciences and economics in programmes for specialisation in general studies.

Geography has competence aims after Vg2 in the programme area for arts, crafts and design studies in programmes for specialisation in general studies /education programmes for music, dance, drama and sports

Overview of main subject areas:

Year

Main subject area

Vg1/Vg2

Geographical sources and tools

Landscape and climate

Resources and business and industry

Demographics and development

Geographical sources and tools

The main subject area geographical sources and tools involves the use of maps, pictures, statistics and geographical information systems.

Landscape and climate

The main subject area landscape and climate focuses on internal and external forces on earth, and their importance when landscapes were formed. The relationship between natural landscapes and cultural landscapes is explored, while this main subject area also looks into important climatic factors and causes for, and consequences of, natural disasters.

Resources and industry

The main subject area resources and industry focuses on the importance of resources for localisation, the development of industry and population settlement, and on the assessment of localisation factors in connection with current global economic activities.

Demographics and development

The main subject area demographics and development focuses on population theories, development of populations and migration on earth. This main subject area includes distribution and differences between rich and poor and discussions on various types of development.

Teaching hours

Teaching hours are given in 60-minute units:

Programmes for general studies

Vg1/Vg2: 56 teaching hours

Basic skills

Basic skills are integrated in the competence aims where they contribute to development of the competence in the subject, while also being part of this competence. In the geography subject basic skills are understood as follows:

Being able to express oneself orally and in writing in geography means describing places and explaining relations and causes, and discussing and analysing geographical topics. The ability to express oneself orally and in writing means being able to reflect on the meaning of the content in various types of information and sources and give grounds for one's views. This means presenting the results of one's own work clearly and understandably to others.

Being able to read in geography means exploring and using texts and other sources and reflecting upon them. Reading helps pupils to experience and understand phenomena, places and people. This includes critically and analytically reading and interpreting maps, images, tables and figures, and reference works.

Being able to do mathematics in geography means processing and comparing figures on geographical topics and interpreting tables and graphic presentations. Being able to do arithmetic is a requirement for preparing tables and graphs and calculating distances and scales on maps.

Being able to use digital tools in geography means exploring websites, collecting relevant information and using network-based communication on geographical topics, exercising critical use of sources and netiquette and learning about personal privacy protection and copyrights. It can also involve using geographical information systems and using digital tools to present one's own work.

Competence aims

Competence aims after Vg1/Vg2

Geographical sources and tools

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to
  • read and use maps in various scales and undertake simple map analysis
  • use digital maps and geographical information systems (GIS)
  • make observations and registrations of geographical features while on excursions or when doing fieldwork and use these to consider nature and society in relation to each other
  • find and present geographical information by reading and assessing text, pictures and statistical presentations from digital and other sources
  • provide an overview of geographical main features such as rivers, lakes, mountains, cities and countries, nationally and globally

Landscape and climate

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to
  • elaborate on how the earth is structured, the main types of rock and how these are formed
  • explain how internal and external forces shape terrain, and recognise typical terrain formations in Norway
  • describe natural landscapes and different cultural landscapes and explain relations and differences between them
  • discuss aesthetic and economic values in landscapes
  • elaborate on global ocean and air currents and discuss what they mean to the climate
  • elaborate on matters that determine weather and climatic conditions in Norway
  • discuss and elaborate on causes of natural disasters in the world and the impact these have on the inflicted societies

Resources and industry

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to
  • elaborate on the resource concept and discuss what is meant by the term sustainable exploitation of resources
  • provide examples of and compare various types of area use in Norway
  • discuss and elaborate on environmental consequences of the use and man-made changes in natural areas in Norwegian and Sami communities
  • provide examples of how resources have been utilised in Norway and discuss how changes in the industrial structure have impacted localisation and settlement patterns
  • provide examples of localisation factors that are important for global financial activities and the international division of labour, and what this means today

Demographics and development

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to
  • elaborate on the development of demographics in Norway with focus on today's situation
  • explain the causes of migration streams in countries and between countries and discuss and elaborate on the impacts of this
  • provide examples of theories on population development and discuss and elaborate on global population matters
  • elaborate on global differences of distribution and living conditions, explain possible causes and discuss how differences between countries could be ameliorated

Assessment

Provisions for final assessment:

Overall achievement grade

Year

Provision

Vg1 programmes for specialisation in general studies – programme area for science and language, social sciences and economics

Vg2 programmes for specialisation in general studies– programme area for arts, crafts and design studies

Vg2 education programme for sports and education programme for music, dance and drama

The pupils shall have one overall achievement grade.

Examinations for pupils

Year

Provision

Vg1 programmes for specialisation in general studies – programme area for science and language, social sciences and economics

Vg2 programmes for specialisation in general studies – programme area for arts, crafts and design studies

Vg2 education programme for sports and education programme for music, dance and drama

The pupils may be selected for an oral examination. The oral examination is prepared and graded locally.

Examinations for external candidates

Year

Provision

Vg1 programmes for specialisation in general studies – programme area for science and language, social sciences and economics

Vg2 programmes for specialisation in general studies – programme area for arts, crafts and design studies

Vg2 education programme for sports and education programme for music, dance and drama

External candidates must sit for an oral examination. The oral examination is prepared and graded locally.

The general provisions on assessment have been laid down in the Regulations relating to the Norwegian Education Act.

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