Geography - common core subject in programmes for general studies (GEO1-01)

Main subject areas

The subject has been structured into main subject areas for which competence aims have been formulated. These main subject areas supplement each other and must be considered together.

In upper secondary education the geography subject is taught in Vg1 or Vg2 in programmes for general studies, cf. the distribution of subjects and teaching hours in upper secondary education.

Geography has competence aims after Vg1 in the programme area for science and languages, social sciences and economics in programmes for specialisation in general studies.

Geography has competence aims after Vg2 in the programme area for arts, crafts and design studies in programmes for specialisation in general studies /education programmes for music, dance, drama and sports

Overview of main subject areas:


Main subject area


Geographical sources and tools

Landscape and climate

Resources and business and industry

Demographics and development

Geographical sources and tools

The main subject area geographical sources and tools involves the use of maps, pictures, statistics and geographical information systems.

Landscape and climate

The main subject area landscape and climate focuses on internal and external forces on earth, and their importance when landscapes were formed. The relationship between natural landscapes and cultural landscapes is explored, while this main subject area also looks into important climatic factors and causes for, and consequences of, natural disasters.

Resources and industry

The main subject area resources and industry focuses on the importance of resources for localisation, the development of industry and population settlement, and on the assessment of localisation factors in connection with current global economic activities.

Demographics and development

The main subject area demographics and development focuses on population theories, development of populations and migration on earth. This main subject area includes distribution and differences between rich and poor and discussions on various types of development.

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